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Samacheer Kalvi Class 12th Zoology Book
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Reproduction in Organisms:
Living organisms show a life cycle involving birth, growth, development, maturation, reproduction and death. Reproduction is the fundamental feature of all living organisms. It is a biological process by which organisms produce their young ones. The young ones grow and mature to repeat the process. Thus reproduction results in continuation of species and introduces variations in organisms, which are essential for adaptation and evolution of their own kind.
Modes of Reproduction:
All modes of reproduction have some basic features such as synthesis of RNA and proteins, replication of DNA, cell division and growth, formation of reproductive units and their fertilization to form new individuals.
Organisms exhibit two major modes of reproduction namely asexual and sexual reproduction. Reproduction by a single parent without the involvement of gamete formation is asexual reproduction and the offspring produced are genetically identical.
Asexual reproduction is usually by amitotic or mitotic division of the somatic (body) cells, hence is also known as somatogenic or blastogenic reproduction. When two parents participate in the reproductive process involving two types of gametes (ova and sperm), it is called sexual reproduction.
Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is wide spread among different organisms. It is common in members of Protista, Bacteria, Archaea and in multicellular organisms with relatively simple organisation. The offsprings show “uniparental inheritance” without any genetic variation.
The different modes of asexual reproduction seen in animals are fission, budding, fragmentation and regeneration. Fission is the division of the parent body into two or more identical daughter individuals. Five types of fission are seen in animals. They are binary fission, multiple fission, plasmotomy, strobilation and sporulation.
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